Audit of possible unauthorized access to Public Service Commission Second Language Evaluation tests by the Nec Plus Ultra language school
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A report by the Public Service Commission of Canada
Public Service Commission of Canada
300 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0M7
Cat. No. SC3-138/2009
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Public Service Commission of Canada, 2009
Table of Contents
- Focus of the audit
- Nec Plus Ultra training is mostly based on practice tests
- Nec Plus Ultra students achieve an unusually high level of exemptions
- Nec Plus Ultra students observe similarities between practice tests and the PSC Second Language Evaluation tests
- Practice tests provided by students are practically identical to the PSC Second Language Evaluation tests
- Next steps
- About the audit
Language testing in the public service
1. The Second Language Evaluation (SLE) system has been developed by the Public Service Commission (PSC) for use by the departments and agencies that are subject to the Public Service Employment Act (PSEA). The SLE system is designed to assess practical second language skills in the context of the federal public service work environment.
2. SLE is comprised of three tests that are designed to measure three language skills: reading, writing and oral interaction. Each skill is assessed at three levels of language proficiency: A, B and C, with A being the lowest score. A candidate who does not meet the minimum requirement for Level A is given a result of X. It is also possible to obtain an exemption (E) for each skill. An exemption is granted when a candidate demonstrates sufficient proficiency within level C (the highest level) to warrant indefinite dispensation from further testing in that skill.
3. Different versions of the SLE tests have been introduced over time (see Appendix A). The letter F or E before the test number indicates whether the test assesses French (F) or English (E) as a second language. The version of the test is indicated after the test number; for example, F630 C1 means version C1 of the Reading Test (630), administered in French. The three tests currently in the SLE system are the following:
Reading Test (630)
4. This test assesses candidates' reading proficiency in their second official language. The version of the test that is currently administered to assess French as a second language is the F630 D2. The test contains 65 multiple-choice questions worth one point each, and is designed to assess the degree to which a candidate is able to understand texts in their second language. The PSC is planning to replace this test in fiscal year 2009-2010.
Writing Test (650) or Written Expression Test (651/652/653)
5. The second test is the Writing Test or Written Expression Test. The version of the test that is currently administered is the F653 A1. It contains 65 multiple-choice questions and assesses knowledge of grammar, structure, usage and other aspects of written expression that are necessary in performing writing tasks dealing with work-related situations. A previous version of the test, the F651 A1, was introduced in October 2007 to replace the previous test, Writing Test F650 D2. As with the Reading Test, the Written Expression Test assesses all general proficiency levels required for bilingual positions in the federal public service.
Oral Interaction Test
6. This test consists of a conversation between the candidate and a trained oral interaction assessor. The assessor uses specific techniques to elicit speech from the candidate in their second language and to evaluate the candidate's listening and speaking skills.
Responsibilities regarding language testing
7. Several federal departments and agencies have been delegated by the PSC to administer SLE tests on its behalf. Whether they have the said delegation or not, departments and agencies are responsible for identifying to the Personnel Psychology Centre (PPC) a contact person who is the test coordinator for SLE in their organization, and for transmitting test results to candidates.
8. Departments and agencies that have delegation for SLE testing must have accredited test administrators, and must administer SLE tests according to established procedures. They must also have at least one Test Centre, which is a specific location within the organization where test administration procedures are handled and where test materials are stored.
9. At the time of publication, 61 federal departments and agencies have been delegated to administer SLE tests, with 323 Test Centres in operation and over 1 200 accredited test administrators.
10. The test administrators must protect the security of the test materials at all times. Testing material must be stored in a locked cabinet in a closed room. No part of any test material may be reproduced, and no test material can be left unattended while a test is being administered. Any material that is not accounted for must be reported immediately to the PPC.
11. The loss of test material can jeopardize an entire examination program and result in significant cost to develop a replacement test. The PSC estimates that the cost of developing Written Expression Test 651, which replaced Writing Test 650 in October 2007, was over $1 million. When a test version is being replaced, Test Centres must return all test booklets to the PSC, which then destroys them. The PSC also destroys its own copies of the test.
12. The PSC, through its PPC, is responsible for developing and distributing SLE test materials, as well as testing policies and procedures. The PPC registers the organizations' test administrators and scorers. It maintains a central data bank for all SLE test results, monitors SLE testing activities and results and provides a consultation service to departments and agencies.
13. In addition, through its regional offices, the PSC administers and scores SLE tests for departments and agencies that have not accepted delegation or when organizations are unable to meet the testing needs of their employees. Persons who are familiar with the content of SLE tests, such as the employees who develop, administer or score them, are administered different tests that are equivalent to the standard ones. Those tests are only available at the PPC.
14. For the Reading and Writing tests, all booklets are marked on each page as Protected B. Other than that, candidates are not specifically instructed to take precautions to protect the content of the tests.
Focus of the audit
15. In September 2007, a public service employee attended training sessions at the language school Nec Plus Ultra (NPU) in Ottawa, to prepare for the Second Language Evaluation (SLE) Writing Test. The employee had previously passed that test in July 2007 but had missed the C mark by just one point. Having heard positive comments about the NPU language school, the employee attended a few training sessions with the owner of the school. According to the employee, the training sessions consisted mainly of completing and correcting practice tests.
16. When attending the testing session at the Public Service Commission (PSC), the employee immediately noticed that the actual SLE Writing Test questions were very similar to the questions on the practice tests given by NPU. The employee raised concerns with her supervisor. The Personnel Psychology Centre (PPC) of the PSC was contacted and given copies of the three practice tests that the students had received from NPU. The PPC compared the practice tests to the real SLE test taken by the student and concluded that the practice tests given by the owner of NPU to the student were practically identical to the official test administered by the PSC.
17. The objective of this audit was to determine whether and, if so, how, the NPU language school had gained unauthorized access to SLE Reading and Writing tests belonging to the PSC. The Oral Interaction test was not covered by the audit.
18. The audit covered federal public service organizations governed by the Public Service Employment Act (PSEA). These organizations are named in Schedules I and IV to the Financial Administration Act. More specifically, the audit focused on those organizations' employees who received language training from the NPU language school during fiscal years 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. The Nec Plus Ultra language school is a sole proprietorship that is owned and operated by Ms. Madeleine Rundle.
Method and approach
19. The SLE tests results in Reading and Writing of 180 employees who had been students at NPU were examined. All former students were asked to provide training material that they had received from NPU. The material provided was compared to actual and past SLE tests. Twenty-five of those former students were interviewed. The owner of NPU was also interviewed. All interviews were conducted under oath.
Nec Plus Ultra training is mostly based on practice tests
20. The owner of Nec Plus Ultra (NPU) testified that she had been employed at several language schools in Ottawa before opening her own school, NPU, in 2001. She is the sole owner and manager of the school and employs between eight and ten contractors at any given time to teach at her school. To her knowledge, none of her contractors have been employed in the public service or have links to public servants. She testified that she has never seen or been administered the Second Language Evaluation (SLE) tests.
21. NPU does not have a Standing Offer with the federal government. The majority of the school's clients are public servants. According to its owner, NPU does not advertise; it gets its business by word of mouth. Employees contact her directly to discuss training and she prepares a proposal. The students come to her school to prepare for the public service language tests. The owner of NPU estimates that approximately 95% of her business involves teaching French to Anglophones.
22. According to its owner, NPU differs from other language schools as it only offers one-on-one training. The owner believes that this is the most efficient teaching method because it focuses on each student's individual needs.
23. The owner of NPU provided copies of the material that she uses to train students at her school. She testified that the material she uses was either bought at bookstores or from Public Works and Government Services Canada. Examination of practice tests brought by the owner of NPU shows that they are not similar to PSC SLE tests.
24. Lessons at NPU mainly consist of going over practice tests completed by the students. The owner either provides a copy of the practice test in advance to the student, or she asks the student to complete the test at the school prior to the lesson. She testified that she does not provide practice tests by e-mail; she gives students hard copies of the tests. Then, during the lesson, she corrects the practice tests with the student. When she feels that the students are ready, she advises them to schedule their SLE tests.
25. The owner of NPU testified that she does not take the time to follow up with students after they take their tests. Some students call her, but she does not keep track of their results. She does not ask her students about the questions on the SLE tests.
26. We interviewed 25 former NPU students. All received French training. The majority of them testified that they received language training as part of their training plan. A few students needed training to improve their SLE levels because they didn't meet the linguistic requirements of their position, while others needed to be re-tested because their SLE results had expired.
27. The employees interviewed were trained mainly by the owner of NPU. Some also received training from other NPU instructors. According to the students, the owner was described as being a very encouraging teacher, who would challenge her students to aim a little higher to ensure that they reached the level they were trying to achieve.
28. The lesson would then be spent correcting a practice test that the student had previously completed. The owner would go over each question with the student and explain the questions that they got wrong. She would explain the grammar rule covered by the question and provide examples. She would also explain the questions that they answered correctly, and verify that they really knew the answer and had not just guessed it correctly. The same practice test would be done repeatedly, until the student achieved perfect or near-perfect results.
Nec Plus Ultra students achieve an unusually high level of exemptions
29. The audit examined the SLE test results of the 180 employees whose names were provided to the PSC by organizations. Of these, 169 were tested in French as a second language; nine were tested in English as a second language and two were tested in both official languages. The test results fell into three distinct groups:
- Group 1: for 95 employees (88 of whom were tested in French, five in English and two in both French and English), the databases contained SLE results in Reading and Writing for tests that the employee had taken both before and after receiving language training from NPU.
- Group 2: for 19 employees, the databases contained SLE results in Reading and Writing for tests that the employee had taken only after receiving language training from NPU. Group 2 employees were administered tests in French.
- Group 3: 66 employees were not tested for either the Reading or Writing components after receiving language training from NPU.
Group 1 results
30. Prior to receiving training from NPU, 91 employees from Group 1 had valid SLE results for the Reading Test. The percentage of employees who achieved an Exemption was 14.3% (13 out of 91).
31. Seventy-three employees from Group 1 who had not already obtained an Exemption in the Reading Test did the Reading component of the SLE after receiving language training from NPU. Of those employees, the percentage who obtained an Exemption was 93.1% (68 out of 73).
Figure 1: Group 1 Reading Test results before Nec Plus Ultra training
Source: Investigations Directorate, with data provided by the Personnel Psychology Centre, Public Service Commission
Figure 2: Group 1 Reading Test results after Nec Plus Ultra training
Source: Investigations Directorate, with data provided by the Personnel Psychology Centre, Public Service Commission
32. Prior to their training with NPU, 91 of the Group 1 employees had valid SLE results for the Writing Test. The percentage of employees who had an Exemption in the SLE Writing Test was 1.1% (1 out of 91).
33. After NPU training, 89 of the Group 1 employees took the Writing Test. Of those, 83 (or 93.2%) received an Exemption on their test. Of the six employees who did not receive an Exemption, three were administered the new version of the writing test: the Written Expression Test, or 651, that was introduced in October 2007.
Figure 3: Group 1 Writing Test results before Nec Plus Ultra training
Source: Investigations Directorate, with data provided by the Personnel Psychology Centre, Public Service Commission
Figure 4: Group 1 Writing Test results after Nec Plus Ultra training
Group 2 results
34. Of the 19 employees in Group 2, 15 were administered the Reading Test after their training with NPU. Of these, 13 (86.7%) obtained an Exemption, one had a result of C and one had a B.
35. Of the 19 employees in Group 2, 17 also took the Writing test. Of these, 13 (76.4%) received an Exemption. The other results were one A, two Bs and one C. It should be noted that the employees who obtained results of A and B were administered the new version of the test (651).
Figure 5: Group 2 Reading Test results
Figure 6: Group 2 Writing Test results
Comparison with the general population
36. Data available to the Personnel Psychology Centre (PPC) shows that, for the period of April 1, 2006, to March 31, 2008, only 7.8% of the employees assessed for the SLE Reading Test obtained an Exemption when the second language assessed was French, and 24.4% obtained an Exemption when the language assessed was English.
37. Similarly, the proportion of all candidates who obtained an Exemption as the result of a Writing Test taken during the same period was 7.2 % (French) and 20.1% (English).
|Group 1||Group 2
(after NPU training)
|Reading Test||14.3%||93.2%||86.7%||7.8% (French)
|Writing Test||1.1%||93.2%||76.4%||7.8% (French)
Source: Investigations Directorate, with data provided by the Personnel Psychology Centre, Public Service Commission.
Nec Plus Ultra students observe similarities between practice tests and the PSC Second Language Evaluation tests
38. After receiving their training from Nec Plus Ultra (NPU), the majority of employees interviewed said that they felt confident and well prepared for the SLE tests. Of the 25 former students, 15 testified that, when they took the actual SLE tests, they noticed that the questions were similar to the ones they had done in the practice tests provided by the owner of NPU.
39. Three employees were so concerned by the similarity between questions on NPU practice tests and on the PSC SLE tests that they shared these concerns with their supervisor.
Practice tests provided by students are practically identical to the PSC Second Language Evaluation tests
40. We asked the 25 former NPU students interviewed to hand over any training material given to them by NPU. In addition, attempts were made to contact the remainder of the 180 employees by telephone. Of these, 66 could not be reached or did not reply to numerous attempts to reach them. A successful initial telephone contact was made with 91 students, who were then sent a request for their training material by e-mail.
41. In total, 20 employees provided practice tests that they had been given during their training at NPU. Four different types of practice tests were submitted:
Untitled document containing 65 multiple-choice questions
42. This practice test was handed in by three of the students interviewed and five of those contacted by phone and e-mail.
43. We compared the document to the different past and present versions of SLE tests. We conclude that this practice test is an actual photocopy of SLE Reading Test F630 C1 of the PSC. This version of the Reading Test was used as the standard form for candidates between 1987 and 1993. This version is still being used: since 1993, it has been the version administered to test administrators. The only difference between the practice test given by former NPU students and the official test booklet is that the word PROTECTED does not appear on the NPU test, as it does on the official test booklet.
44. We showed a copy of this practice test to the owner of NPU. She recognized it as one of the practice tests that she gives her students. She stated that she obtained it from a school (now closed) where she was teaching prior to opening NPU.
Revue de la Lecture 2
45. This practice test was provided by four former NPU students. The document contains 65 items. Each item is a statement in French. Below each statement is an explanation in English, giving the meaning of the statement; the correct response is presented inside a box. For some statements, a list of incorrect responses is also provided.
46. According to the PPC, this practice test is clearly designed to help candidates obtain high scores on the version of SLE Reading Test F630 D2, rather than to teach them language skills. Each of the 65 items on the practice test corresponds to some degree to one of the questions on the actual SLE test: 13 questions are identical or virtually identical, 50 questions are substantively identical and only 2 items are different. Forty-five of the responses identified on the practice test were identical or virtually identical to the actual responses, and twenty were substantively identical. Even for the two questions that were different, the subject covered was the same and the elements of response given were substantively identical.
47. Comparison between Revue de la lecture 2 and the PSC Reading Test F630 D2 shows that the questions on each test are not identical, but they are substantively the same. Although the statements are not identical word for word, the students who used Revue de la lecture 2 were shown which response was the correct one and which responses were incorrect.
48. An employee who provided this document testified that it came from the owner of NPU, that it was used in lessons and that some of the handwriting on the documents belonged to the owner of NPU.
49. The owner of NPU testified that she did not recognize the document entitled Revue de la Lecture 2, that she had not provided this document to any of her students and that the handwriting on the document was not hers.
Expression écrite 1 / Expression écrite 3 / Expression écrite 3A
50. These practice tests were provided by two former students who were interviewed, one of whom had received them by e-mail from the owner of NPU. Three of the students contacted by phone and by e-mail also handed in copies of those practice tests.
51. The content of each of these tests is practically the same; each test adds onto the previous one. Expression écrite 1 contains 55 questions. Expression écrite 3contains the same 55, with the addition of questions 56 to 64. Finally, Expression écrite 3A has 72 questions, the first 64 being the same as in Expression écrite 3. The differences between Expression écrite 3A and Expression écrite 3 are that some of the additional questions are the same as previous ones, or questions are not exactly in the same order on the two tests.
52. The questions on those practice tests are practically identical to the ones on SLE Writing Test F650 D2, which contains 55 questions and was used as the standard form for candidates from 2004 until it was retired in October 2007. According to the PPC, which compared the questions on the practice tests with the questions on actual SLE Writing Test F650 D2, approximately 95% of the items on the practice tests overlap with the actual test questions. The items are either exactly the same or are substantively identical.
53. The owner of NPU was shown a set of three documents entitled Expression écrite 1, Expression écrite 3 and Expression écrite 3A. She testified that she had never used these practice tests at her school. She further stated that the handwriting on these documents was not hers. While agreeing that the three practice tests do contain questions that are similar in style and format to the exercises that she uses with her students, she denied using these three documents at her school.
54. Two of the students interviewed in person and one contacted by phone and e-mail were in possession of this practice test. Two of the students each handed in two slightly different versions of the document, entitled EXPRESSION ECRITE and containing 80 multiple-choice questions. One student received the two versions by e-mail from the owner of NPU in January 2008.
55. Versions 1 and 2 of EXPRESSION ECRITE are very similar, the only difference being that questions in Version 2 are more elaborate than those in Version 1.
56. Comparison of Versions 1 and 2 with actual SLE tests shows that all of the 80 questions in SLE Test of Written Expression F651 A1 are reflected in Versions 1 and 2 of EXPRESSION ECRITE, the practice tests used at NPU. Seventy-eight of the questions are in the exact same order; two are in reversed order.
57. The questions themselves are generally incomplete, but contain, in almost all cases, all the relevant parts of the original question to help candidates determine the correct answer. As for the four response choices presented for each question, 73 of the 80 questions on EXPRESSION ECRITE contain the same response choices as in the F651 A1. By way of illustration, Appendix B presents a comparison between the practice test used by NPU (EXPRESSION ECRITE) and SLE Test of Written Expression F651 A1.
58. The owner of NPU was shown the two versions of this document that were received electronically by a former student. She admitted that the e-mail address from which the documents were sent belongs to her. She denied having sent those practice tests from her computer, adding that students have complete access to her computer and her e-mail account while they are at the school. She stated that she has never seen those documents.
59. Based on the evidence gathered, we conclude that Second Language Evaluation (SLE) tests of the Public Service Commission (PSC) have been compromised. First, the evidence shows that, for the SLE Reading and Writing tests, Nec Plus Ultra (NPU) students have had success rates which far exceed those of the general population taking these tests. The evidence also shows that NPU gave its students practice tests that are practically identical to the PSC SLE tests for Reading (versions F630 D2 and F630 C1) and Writing (versions F650 D2 and F651A1). Based on this evidence, we conclude that NPU was in possession of and used the PSC SLE Reading and Writing tests. This was done without the authorization of the PSC. The PSC only authorizes accredited test administrators to use its tests; no such authorization was given to the owner of NPU. The evidence gathered during the audit does not show how NPU came into possession of the PSC SLE tests.
Comments on behalf of Nec Plus Ultra. Legal counsel representing Nec Plus Ultra stated that, notwithstanding requests, his client was not provided with any of the documentation or particulars with respect to the information received by the PSC from other sources, and was not given the opportunity to review, assess and comment on that information and those sources.
As for the conclusion of the audit that PSC SLE tests have been compromised, Legal counsel for NPU stated that no evidence shows how any compromising of these tests was attributable to NPU, be it deliberately or inappropriately or otherwise.
PSC response. The owner of NPU was informed during the audit that the names of her former public service students from 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 had been obtained and that they were being contacted. She was shown copies of all the NPU practice tests gathered from her former students and given the opportunity to comment. As well, NPU was given the opportunity to comment on this report and on all the information that it contains. The central issue of this audit was that NPU practice tests were almost identical to actual PSC SLE tests. Copies of the practice tests obtained from former NPU students were shown to the owner of NPU for comments but were not provided because of their similarity to actual SLE tests of the PSC.
As for the conclusion of the audit, the evidence gathered shows that NPU was in possession of, and used with its students, practice tests that are almost entirely identical to PSC SLE tests. The PSC only authorizes accredited test administrators to use its tests; no such authorization was given to the owner of NPU. The conclusion is that NPU was in possession of and used, without authorization, PSC SLE tests.
The Public Service Commission will take the following steps:
- Accelerate the process for approval and the introduction of new versions of the SLE tests that have been compromised;
- Introduce new measures for SLE tests to gather information on candidates' language training and to instruct candidates not to disclose the contents of tests;
- Initiate a process to re-test all the employees who have taken the SLE Reading and/or Writing Tests after receiving language training from NPU, to ensure that test results are valid and that employees are fully qualified for their positions. Validation of results has to be completed within two years; and
- Implement the recommendations of a further test security review.
About the audit
60. This audit was conducted under the authority of section 17 of the Public Service Employment Act (PSEA), which states that:
17. The Commission may conduct audits on any matter within its jurisdiction and on the exercise, by deputy heads, of their authority under subsection 30(2) and may make recommendations to deputy heads.
61. In the conduct of its audits, the Public Service Commission (PSC) has the powers of a commissioner under Part 1 of the Inquiries Act, which provides, among other things, that commissioners have the power to summon witnesses and to require them to produce documents.
62. Further, section 135 of the PSEA requires deputy heads and employees to provide the PSC with facilities, assistance, information and access to their respective offices, as required in the conduct of this audit.
Method and approach
63. The first step undertaken to gather evidence was to ask all deputy heads, by means of a letter sent in March 2008, to inform the PSC whether their organization had any contractual dealings with Nec Plus Ultra (NPU) during fiscal years 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Those who had were asked to provide the name and Personal Record Identifier (PRI) of any employee who received training from NPU, the specific dates on which this training took place and, if the information was available, the name of the NPU instructor who provided the training.
64. As a result of the March 2008 letter to deputy heads, the names of 180 employees from 29 different organizations were provided to the PSC. The Personnel Psychology Centre searched its databases of SLE tests results and, for each of the 180 individuals, extracted historical and current results of each test taken (630: Reading; 650/651: Writing / Written Expression and Oral Interaction).
65. The PSC interviewed 25 of the 180 former students of NPU. The first 13 former students interviewed were chosen based on their SLE test results. Another 12 students were randomly chosen. Each person interviewed was asked to bring copies of any training material they had received from NPU. As a result, eight individuals brought training material.
66. We interviewed the owner of NPU on two occasions (October 23, 2008, and February 19, 2009). The owner was accompanied to the interviews by Legal Counsel for NPU, Mr. George Hunter, of the law firm of Borden Ladner Gervais. The owner of NPU provided copies of some of the material that she uses to train students. She was given the opportunity to comment on the material given to the PSC by her former students. NPU was also provided with a copy of this audit report for comments.
67. Finally, the former students who were not interviewed were contacted, by telephone and by e-mail, and asked to provide any training material that they kept from their NPU training. Of the 91 students that we were able to reach, 27 have provided training material from NPU, including material to prepare for the Oral Interaction test.
Appendix A: Chronology of Second Language Evaluation tests
- F630 A1: used for test administrators from 1987 to 1993
- F630 B1 and C1: used as the standard form for candidates from 1987 to 1993
- F630 C1: used only for test administrators from 1993 to the present
- F630 D1: used as the standard form for candidates from 1994 to 2005
- F630 D2: used as the standard form for candidates since 2005; expected to be replaced in fiscal year 2009-2010
- E630 A1: used for test administrators from 1984 to 1994
- E630 B1 and C1: used as the standard form for candidates from 1987 to 1993
- E630 C1: used only for test administrators from 1993 to the present
- E630 D1: used as the standard form for candidates since 1994; expected to be replaced in fiscal year 2009-2010
Writing Test / Test of Written Expression
- F650 H1: used for test administrators from 1984 to 1994
- F650 C1: used as the standard form for candidates from 1988 to 1994; used for test administrators from 1994 to 2004
- F650 D1: used as the standard form for candidates from 1994 to 2004
- F650 D2: used as the standard form for candidates from 2004 to October 1, 2007
- F651 A1: new 80-item Test of Written Expression used as the standard form for candidates from October 1, 2007, to June 1, 2008
- F653 A1: new 65-item Test of Written Expression used as the standard form for candidates since June 2, 2008
- E650 H1: used for test administrators from 1984 to 1994
- E650 C1: used as the standard form for candidates from 1988 to 2006
- E650 D1: used for test administrators since 1994
- E650 C2: used as the standard form for candidates from 2006 to October 1, 2007
- E651 A1: new 80-item Test of Written Expression used as the standard form for candidates from October 1, 2007, to June 1, 2008
- E652 A1: new 65-item Test of Written Expression used as the standard form for candidates since June 2, 2008
|Nec Plus Ultra Practice Test EXPRESSION ECRITE||Second Language Evaluation Test of Written Expression F651 A1|
1st version: Quelle section de phrase contient une ou plusieurs erreurs?
C'est important que les institutions fédérale.....
2nd version : Quelle section de phrase contient une ou plusieurs erreurs?
Il est important que les institutions fédérales sont bien gérées et attentives aux besoins des citoyens, qu'elles collaborent étroitement avec les autres paliers du gouvernement, le secteur privé ainsi qu'avec les organismes indépendants sans but lucratif.
C. Il est important que les institutions fédérales sont bien gérées et attentives aux besoins des citoyens, qu'elles collaborent étroitement avec les autres paliers de gouvernement, le secteur privé ainsi qu'avec les organismes indépendants sans but lucratif.
Quelle section de phrase du paragraphe C comporte une ou plusieurs erreurs?
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