Chapter 2

Table of Contents

A highly delegated staffing system

2.1   The Public Service Employment Act (PSEA) provides the Public Service Commission (PSC) with the authority to make appointments to and within the public service. The PSC then delegates the greater part of this authority to deputy heads so that they may staff positions, manage resources and lead their personnel to achieve results for Canadians. This delegation is accomplished through the Appointment Delegation and Accountability Instruments (ADAIs) created for each organization under the authority of the PSEA. Deputy heads may, in turn, sub-delegate their authorities to managers within their organization.

2.2   The terms of the ADAIs require deputy heads to put in place their own frameworks based on the Staffing Management Accountability Framework (SMAF) and actively monitor the application of their delegated authorities. Details of the SMAF are included in Appendix 1 and the PSC's assessment of the performance of deputy heads is presented in Chapter 5.

2.3   The SMAF provides deputy heads and sub-delegated managers with a flexible, responsive means of managing staffing within their organizations. It provides the PSC with a means to report to Parliament on the integrity of the staffing system.

Employees under the Public Service Employment Act

2.4   On March 31, 2010, there were 84 ADAIs in effect between the PSC and deputy heads. The organizations covered by the ADAIs represented a total of 216 045 individuals, including 190 317 in indeterminate positions, 13 478 in specified term positions, 7 279 casual workers and 4 971 students. This represented growth of 3.4% over the previous year. However, for the first time in three years, the overall pace of growth slowed.

2.5   The PSC also oversees the political activities of over 45 000 additional individuals who are subject to only Part 7 of the PSEA which governs these activities.

Figure 1 — Public Service Employment Act population by tenure, year and annual population growth (%)

Figure 1 - Public Service Employment Act population by tenure, year and annual population growth (%)

Figure 1 long description

Source: Public Service Commission population files

* The growth in March 2005 includes the transfer of 9 507 employees from the Canada Revenue Agency to the Canada Border Services Agency. The number of employees in other organizations under the Public Service Employment Act decreased by 0.2% from March 2004 to March 2005.

2.6   The most significant growth occurred in five organizations: Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, Correctional Service Canada, Environment Canada, Citizenship and Immigration Canada and Public Works and Government Services Canada which contributed approximately 61% of the population increase over the last year, while representing 32.3% of the total PSEA population. Table 45 in Appendix 2 provides a detailed listing of population changes by organization from March 2009 to March 2010.

Overall public service hiring and staffing activities

2.7   As population growth in the public service began to taper off in 2009-2010, the level of staffing activity in the public service also showed signs of decreasing.

2.8   Organizations under the PSEA conducted 123 920 hiring and staffing activities in 2009-2010, a decrease of 2.2% over the previous fiscal year. Of these activities, 90 127 were appointments to or movement within the public service, consisting of 74 777 indeterminate and 15 350 specified term appointments. In addition to these appointments, 19 134 casual hires and 14 659 student hires were made in 2009-2010.

2.9   Decreases in staffing activity were seen within the public service as well as in hiring from outside the public service. Hiring activity to the public service totalled 55 699 during 2009-2010, a decrease of 1.7% from the previous fiscal year. Staffing activities within the public service decreased by 2.5%.

2.10  The number of new indeterminate hires from outside the public service decreased significantly in 2009-2010 to 10 718 appointments from 12 705 in 2008-2009 (or 15.6%). New indeterminate hires represented 19.2% of all new hires, a decrease from 2008-2009 when new indeterminate hires represented 22.4% of all new hires.

Figure 2 — Overall hiring and staffing activities under the Public Service Employment Act by fiscal year1

Figure 2 - Overall hiring and staffing activities under the Public Service Employment Act by fiscal year[1]

Figure 2 long description

Source: Public Service Commission hiring and staffing activities files

1 Please see technical notes, Table 36 within Appendix 2.

Hiring activity to the public service by geographic area

2.11  Figure 3 shows the distribution of hiring activity (indeterminate, specified term, casual and students) and population figures by geographic area. The decrease in overall hiring activity was reflected in the hiring activity of half of the geographic areas. However, notable increases in the absolute number of hiring activities occurred in British Columbia and Manitoba in 2009-2010. The continued growth in the number of employees in organizations under the PSEA as of March 31, 2010, occurred in all regions except Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island and the Yukon.

Figure 3 — Hiring activity under the Public Service Employment Act compared to its population by geographic area1

Figure 3 - Hiring activity under the Public Service Employment Act compared to its population by geographic area[1]

Figure 3 long description

Source: Public Service Commission hiring and staffing activities files and population files

1 Totals include indeterminate, specified term, casual and student hiring activity to the public service and population.

2.12  Hiring activity within and outside the National Capital Region (NCR) compared to the number of employees in the region under the Act as of March 2010 — Over the last five years, hiring activity in the NCR as a proportion of all hiring activity has increased slightly, from 38.7% in 2005-2006 to 42.7% in 2009-2010, which is reflective of the proportion of the population in the NCR as of March 2010 (43.0%).

Figure 4 — Hiring activity under the Public Service Employment Act by fiscal year compared to its population as of March 31, 2010 within and outside the National Capital Region

Figure 4 - Hiring activity under the Public Service Employment Act by fiscal year compared to its population as of March 31, 2010 within and outside the National Capital Region

Figure 4 long description

Source: Public Service Commission hiring and staffing activities files and population files

Note: Totals include indeterminate, specified term, casual and student hiring activity to the public service.

2.13  As was the case in 2008-2009, the majority (61.1%) of indeterminate and specified term appointments to the public service under the PSEA were in two occupational categories: Administrative and Foreign Service (8 396); and Administrative Support (4 992). Within these two categories, three groups accounted for over 45% of the appointments to the public service: Clerical and Regulatory, with 4 950 or 22.6% of all appointments to the public service; Program Administration, with 2 900 or 13.2% of appointments; and Administrative Services, with 2 324 or 10.6% of appointments.

Executive Group

2.14  As of March 2010, a total of 4 939 individuals occupied indeterminate or specified term positions in the Executive Group (EX-1 to EX-5) in organizations under the PSEA, an increase of 4.7% (223) from March 2009.

  • Of the 5 levels in the EX Group, the EX-4 level had the highest rate of increase, from 192 to 208 employees (or 8.3%). The EX-1 level grew by 109 individuals (or 4.3%) since March 2009; however, the rate of growth was much slower compared to the previous year when it grew by 12.4%. The number of employees at the EX-5 level was essentially unchanged, falling from 96 to 95.
Table 1 — Public Service Employment Act population in the Executive Group by level and year
Level March 2006 March 2007 March 2008 March 2009 March 2010
EX-1 1 999 2 144 2 278 2 560 2 669
EX-2 920 996 1 072 1 082 1 153
EX-3 733 728 734 786 814
EX-4 177 172 195 192 208
EX-5 81 81 78 96 95
Total 3 910 4 121 4 357 4 716 4 939

Source: Public Service Commission population files

Note: Totals include indeterminate and specified term positions only.

2.15  Staffing activities to and within the Executive Group by fiscal year and level — There were 2 408 staffing activities to and within the EX Group in 2009-2010, a decrease of 3.3% from last year:

  • Executive promotions were down by 8.3%. Lateral and downward movements increased by 9.9%.
  • In 2009-2010, 54.9% of staffing activities within the EX Group were concentrated at the EX-1 level, a percentage in line with the experience of past years.
  • The number of staffing activities at the EX-5 level decreased by 31.1 % from the previous year, from 45 in 2008-2009 to 31 in 2009-2010.
  • Of the 2 408 EX appointments, 104 were to the public service from the general public or from federal agencies not under the PSEA, a decline from last year of 10.3%.

Figure 5 — Staffing activities under the Public Service Employment Act to and within the Executive Group by level and fiscal year

Figure 5 - Staffing activities under the Public Service Employment Act to and within the Executive Group by level and fiscal year

Figure 5 long description

Source: Public Service Commission hiring and staffing activities files

Table 2 — Staffing activities under the Public Service Employment Act to and within the Executive Group by type of activity and fiscal year
Activity 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 %
change
over last
year
Appointments to the public service 63 89 109 116 104 -10.3
Promotions 677 856 950 1 137 1 043 -8.3
Lateral and downward movements1 544 553 496 575 632 9.9
Acting appointments2 7543 767 790 662 629 -5.0
Total 2 038 2 265 2 345 2 490 2 408 -3.3

Source: Public Service Commission hiring and staffing activities files

1 Lateral and downward movements include deployments. As the type of appointment process is not captured by the pay system, it is not possible to differentiate between lateral and downward appointments and deployments.

2 Excludes acting appointments of less than four months.

3 This number has been adjusted since it was first reported as 752 in the 2005-2006 Annual Report.

2.16  In 2009-2010, 1 914 of the 2 408 appointments to and within the EX Group (79.5%) in organizations under the PSEA were "bilingual imperative" processes. Processes identified as bilingual imperative mean that appointees must meet the language requirements of the position when the offer is made.

2.17  There has been a steady increase in the percentage of bilingual imperative appointments made over the last five years. This is a result of the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat Directive on the Staffing of Bilingual Positions, which came into effect in April 2004.

2.18  Among all five levels of the EX Group, the EX-3 and EX-4 levels had the highest percentages of bilingual imperative appointments, with 284 (or 84.8%) of EX-3 appointments and 84 (or 84.8%) of EX-4 appointments being staffed as bilingual imperative.

Table 3 — Bilingual imperative appointments under the Public Service Employment Act to and within the Executive Group by level and fiscal year
  2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010
No. %* No. %* No. %* No. %* No. %*
EX-1 674 65.4 865 65.6 880 68.8 1 092 74.8 1 024 77.5
EX-2 338 64.6 363 69.5 418 72.6 408 76.7 498 80.2
EX-3 284 79.3 240 79.5 245 70.8 319 85.5 284 84.8
EX-4 60 72.3 68 85.0 80 73.4 69 86.2 84 84.8
EX-5 35 81.4 38 86.3 30 88.2 38 84.4 24 77.4
Sub-total bilingual imperative appointments 1 391 68.2 1 574 69.5 1 653 70.5 1 926 77.3 1 914 79.5
Total EX appointments 2 038 2 265 2 345 2 490 2 408

Source: Public Service Commission hiring and staffing activities files

* Percentages are calculated on the total EX appointments by level. See Figure 5 for all EX appointments by level.

Official languages

2.19  PSC appointment data demonstrate that there are many opportunities for unilingual and bilingual Canadians to join the public service. Table 4 indicates the number of appointments to the public service in organizations under the PSEA by the language requirements of the position and tenure.

2.20  Of the 21 906 indeterminate and specified term appointments to the public service, 15 842 (72.3%) were staffed as unilingual (i.e. English or French essential, French essential or English essential), a slight increase from the previous year; and 5 729 (26.2%) were staffed as bilingual imperative. A total of 260 appointments (1.2% of the 21 906 appointments to the public service) were bilingual non-imperative (i.e. appointments where appointees may acquire the necessary levels of bilingualism over a set period of time), the same percentage as last year.

2.21  However, the table shows that the proportion of appointments by the language requirements of the position varied depending on whether the appointment was indeterminate or for a specified term. Bilingual imperative appointments represented 32.8% of all indeterminate appointments, compared to 19.8% of all specified term appointments.

Table 4 — Appointments to the public service under the Public Service Employment Act by language requirements of position and tenure for fiscal year 2009-2010
Language requirements of position Indeterminate Specified term1 Total
No. % No. % No. %
Bilingual imperative 3 516 32.8 2 213 19.8 5 729 26.2
Bilingual non-imperative 230 2.1 30 0.3 260 1.2
English essential 5 606 52.3 6 975 62.3 12 581 57.4
French essential 498 4.6 1 100 9.8 1 598 7.3
English or French essential 813 7.6 850 7.6 1 663 7.6
Total2 10 718 100.0 11 188 100.0 21 906 100.0

Source: Public Service Commission hiring and staffing activities files

1 The bilingual non-imperative specified term records are sometimes incorrectly coded by organizations in the Public Works and Government Services Canada pay system. They should be coded as bilingual imperative.

2 Totals include unknown language requirements. The percentages are calculated based on the sum of all components, known and unknown.

2.22  Appointments to the public service by first official language — In 2009-2010, 71.5% of persons appointed to the public service in organizations under the PSEA indicated English as their first official language, whereas 28.5% indicated French.1 These percentages have remained relatively unchanged over the past five years. The percentages are also somewhat different within the National Capital Region, where 64.1% of persons appointed were Anglophone and 35.9% were Francophone.

Table 5 — Appointments to the public service under the Public Service Employment Act by first official language group and fiscal year within and outside the National Capital Region
Region First official language group 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
Within the NCR Anglophone 3 640 63.2 4 266 60.4 5 428 60.3 6 415 61.8 5 633 64.1
Francophone 2 124 36.8 2 793 39.6 3 578 39.7 3 966 38.2 3 161 35.9
Subtotal 5 764 100.0 7 059 100.0 9 006 100.0 10 381 100.0 8 794 100.0
Outside the NCR Anglophone 6 998 75.4 8 212 78.3 9 879 77.9 10 145 76.6 9 963 76.6
Francophone 2 287 24.6 2 275 21.7 2 806 22.1 3 104 23.4 3 041 23.4
Subtotal 9 285 100.0 10 487 100.0 12 685 100.0 13 249 100.0 13 004 100.0
Total 1 15 178 17 699 21 838 23 744 21 906

Source: Public Service Commission hiring and staffing activities files

1 The total includes appointments with unknown first official language values. Percentages use the known first official language as the denominator.

2.23  Appointments to the public service by first official language group for bilingual imperative positions only — In 2009-2010, of the 5 729 bilingual imperative appointments to the public service, 62.3% were Francophones and 37.7% were Anglophones. The number of Anglophones appointed to bilingual imperative positions increased slightly (by 2.5 percentage points) in 2009-2010.

Figure 6 — Bilingual imperative appointments to the public service under the Public Service Employment Act by first official language and fiscal year

Figure 6 - Bilingual imperative appointments to the public service under the Public Service Employment Act by first official language and fiscal year

Figure 6 long description

Source: Public Service Commission hiring and staffing activities files

Public Service Official Languages Exclusion Approval Order

2.24  The Public Service Official Languages Exclusion Approval Order (the Order) and the Public Service Official Languages Appointment Regulations (the Regulations) are statutory instruments under which a public servant may be excluded from complying with the language requirements of their position in the case of non-imperative staffing.

2.25  The exclusion period under the Regulations applies to employees who do not meet the language requirements for their positions when they are appointed on a non-imperative basis. However, these appointees are entitled to receive language training and must meet the language requirements of their position at the end of a maximum period of four years following their appointment (the initial two-year period must be extended by an additional two years in specified circumstances).

2.26  In its 2007-2008 Annual Report, the PSC identified organizations with cases where the exclusion period exceeded four years. In total, there were 184 such cases. In 2008-2009, the PSC asked those organizations to indicate the measures adopted to end the extensions granted under the Order and the Regulations. This year, there are still 30 cases where the exclusion period exceeds four years. The PSC will carry out case-by-case follow-ups and continue to monitor extensions granted in order to reduce the number of cases under the Order and the Regulations.

2.27  Of the 29 942 indeterminate appointments to bilingual positions in 2009-2010 (not including acting appointments), 1 896 (or 6.3%) resulted from bilingual non-imperative processes. This represented a decrease compared to 2008-2009, when there were 2 160 (7.1%).

2.28  Both the number of employees not meeting the language requirements of their positions upon appointment and the percentage of non-imperative appointments decreased in 2009-2010 compared to 2008-2009 (see Table 6). A total of 265 employees (14% of non-imperative appointments) did not meet the language requirements for their positions upon appointment in 2009-2010. This represented a very small minority of those who held bilingual positions when they were appointed, accounting for only 0.9% of all appointments to bilingual positions, at any level, for the 2009-2010 fiscal year.

Table 6 — Number of employees exempted under the Public Service Official Languages Exclusion Approval Order by fiscal year
Fiscal year Indeterminate
appointments to
bilingual positions
Non-imperative
appointments
(% of bilingual
positions)
Employees not meeting
the requirements upon
appointment
(% of non-imperative
appointments)
2005-2006 19 793 2 180 (11.0%) 308 (14.1%)
2006-2007 22 744 2 294 (10.1%) 354 (15.4%)
2007-2008 26 182 2 054 (7.8%) 320 (15.6%)
2008-2009 30 318 2 160 (7.1%) 403 (18.7%)
2009-2010 29 942 1 896 (6.3%) 265 (14.0%)

Source: Public Service Commission hiring and staffing activities files, excluding acting appointments

2.29  Trend with regard to compliance with the Order — Under the Order and the Regulations, if an exclusion period ends before the incumbent meets the language requirements of their position, it must be extended in specified circumstances. In the past, the PSC has noted that organizations do not always ensure that exclusion periods are extended as required by the Order and the Regulations.

2.30  Since March 31, 2005, there has been a steady decrease in the number of cases dating back more than two years that do not comply with the Order or its Regulations (see Figure 7). There were 55 such cases on March 31, 2010, 69 on March 31, 2009 and 320 on March 31, 2006. This reduction is attributable to the PSC's monitoring and its constant efforts to raise the awareness of organizations and to increased vigilance by deputy heads.

Figure 7 — Number of non-compliant situations as of March 31 of each year

Figure 7 - Number of non-compliant situations as of March 31 of each year

Figure 7 long description

Source: Public Service Commission files on official languages

Endnotes

1. The percentages are of those who identified either as Anglophone or Francophone and exclude those with an unknown first official language. [Return]

Table of Contents